This session focuses on learning goals and their operationalisation.
After this session the participant will:
- be able to develop
a set of learning goals and operationalisation (criteria
catalogue for assessment)
- consider the role of teacher in
supporting and facilitating evidencing of e-Portfolio achievement
Why learning goals need to be operationalised
As was shown and discussed
in the first session of this module, it is important that the learning
outcomes and the assessment criteria
(and the assessment procedure!) should fit together.
in learning and teaching should be identically or similarity with the
learning goals, when the teachers wants to reach
the learning goals (and not only the assessment criteria).
learning goals (e.g. in curricula) are very often very general. So
it is very difficult to assess an e-portfolio for its creativity
or self organisation. It is hard to say, how and when a learner reached
There are different levels of learning goals and for that, different
levels of assessment (Hager & Butler, p. 68):
- knowledge, skills
- performance in simulated or practice domains
- personal competence
in the practice domain
To make a fair, objective and correct
assessment possible a teacher should "operationalise" the learning
goals. In e-portfolio work, normally learners are involved in that process.
Look at your own learning goals concerning the participation
in that course/module. How should somebody else assess if you
are able to assess e-portfolio work, using your e-portfolio?
Sources for evaluation and assessment
Not every potential operationalisation
of learning goals can be found in an e-portfolio. But in portfolio
work, there exist several sources
which can be used for the assessment.
From the viewpoint of assessment,
the rationale for portfolios is clear: there are a number of valuable
activities and attainments
be assessed using the format of timed tests. The ability to create,
design, reflect, modify and persevere are all important goals of education.
It is entirely appropriate to assess these processes by collecting
evidence on the ability to engage in an extended piece of work, and
to bring it to a successful conclusion by the creation of some product – lab
report, video, installation etc. Part of the portfolio can (should)
provide evidence of the range of personal skills demonstrated, perhaps
under the headings suggested in the Tomlinson Report (2004): student
selfawareness – of themselves and the ways they learn and what
they know; how students appear to, and interact with, others; thinking
about possible futures and making informed decisions. A section of
the portfolio in the form of a viva, or simply annotations of products
where students show their attainments in these three aspects of performance
is appropriate. (Source: Future Lab Review )
In general, the following
different sources for assessment can be described Hager & Butler,
217).The popular techniques for assessment and their brief description:
Journal: shared account of a person’s actions, thoughts and
feelings written by the person himself or herself, usually on a daily
- Diary: private account of a person’s actions, thoughts
and feelings written by the person himself or herself, usually on
a daily basis.
- Verbal Report: account given by individuals of their
thought processes, feelings, ideas etc.
- Questionnaire: form on which
there is a set of questions to be answered by a number of people
so that information about those people
which is of interest
to the researcher can be collected.
- Checklist: a list of items to be checked
by a person.
- Self-rating forms: persons’ critical rating of
their own work.
- Self reports: persons’ report on their own work.
written comments made in the process of professional action.
conversation or meeting intended to gather certain information.
Study: an in-dept study of one particular student, teacher, class,
- Observation: process of watching or listening to professional
action either while it is happening, or from a recorded sequence.
- Teachers' portfolios
(Teaching portfolios): an anthology of achievements that the teacher
has accomplished, both in the classroom
and elsewhere. Items
often found in a portfolio include a statement of the teacher's philosophy
of teaching, teacher's curriculum vitae, examples of materials, activities,
or lesson plans that the teacher has developed, video clips of teacher's
classroom teaching, samples of student, peer, or administrative assessments
of the teaching, and so on.
Discuss, which of these sources can be assessed and found
during the portfolio process and which of them can be seen
in the "e-portfolio" itself. Some of this sources
fit more to the portfolio concept than the others. Which?
Assessing E-Portfolio itself
Sometimes, e-portfolio work in itself
should be assessed.
Assessment with e-portfolio has to consist of objective
criteria on the one hand (like completeness) and criteria, which show
of the ability to reflect on the learning process on the other hand
(Richter 2006: Portfolios im universitären Kontext: Wann, wo,
wie? In: Brunner, I., Häckert, T.; Winter, F. (Ed.). Das Handbuch
Portfolioarbeit, S. 234-241.).
E.g. the description of a mature e-portfolio by Challis is helpful
(Challis, D. (2005): Towards
the Mature ePortfolio: Some Implicatios for Higher Education. In:
Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. Vol. 31(3). :
of material (e.g. relevant – everything tied to the
set purpose and audience, carefully selected to make obvious specific
points, no unprocessed
or trivial material)
- Level of reflection (e.g. reveals deep understanding, illustrated
self-awareness and growth, incorporates and is responsive to feedback
- Content (e.g. reveals considerable thought over a period
of time, is contextualized, reveals personality as well as thought,
- Use of multi-media (enhances content and engages, appropriate
and purposeful, high quality audio/video, non-distracting)
(e.g. uncluttered and elegant, graphics are in accord with portfolio’s
purpose and its creator, no distracting elements, connections are readily made
(e.g. clear - intuitive, allows users to select their own pathway(s),
The following general checklist for the criteria areas
that help to define presentational e-Portfolios based on E-Portfolio
Criteria, proposed by Penn State (Penn State, 2006 http://psu.edu ).
Operational (e-Portfolio functions well).
- navigation is clear and consistent
- all links work
- media displays as intended
- all programming is appropriate (not too
limited or too flashy)
- spelling and grammar are correct
- published materials respect copyright
Appearance (e-Portfolio looks well). Indicators:
and navigation are clear and consistent
- images are optimized for
- text is readable (fonts, sizes, and contrast)
Evidence (academic, co-curricular and personal evidence).
- organizational scheme connects all evidence into
an integrated whole
- features or showcases
a specific piece of evidence
- shows depth in major and related experience
- shows breadth of knowledge
- includes a resume (one page, printer friendly)
Reflection (personal message is integrated
into the e-Portfolio). Indicators:
- audience and purpose of e-portfolio
is described or is obvious
the career and own personal development
- reflective comments about
evidence as well as reflective
says about the
student is integrated
into the e-portfolio
- includes short-term goals
(skills learner needs to
- includes long-term
goals (professional and/or personal
- interpretation of
learner's own achievements is expressed
Discuss this criteria: Do you think, they are (a) complete
(b) correct (c) important? How would you adapt these criteria
if you like to assess a presentational e-portfolio in your